771. Concerning insulin
A. Alpha adrenergic stimulation inhibits insulin secretion
B. Theophylline inhibits insulin secretion
C. Insulin has a half life of about 30 minutes in the circulation
D. Insulin inhibits K uptake into muscle and adipose cells
E. Somatostatin stimulates insulin secretion

772. Actions of glucocorticoids include all of the following except
A. Gluconeogenesis in the liver
B. Maintenance of myocardial contractility
C. Inhibition of glucose uptake by muscle and adipose tissue
D. “Permissive” effect on Angiotensin II
E. Decrease in vascular resistance

773. Concerning calcium metabolism
A. the net effect of parathyroid hormone is to decrease serum phosphate
B. Vitamin D decreases renal excretion of both calcium and phosphate
C. Calcitonin is secreted by parathyroid chief cells
D. Insulin decreases bone formation
E. Thyroid hormones decrease calcium excretion in urine

774. Which of the following is true of the renin angiotensin system
A. Renin causes release of aldosterone
B. Increased sodium reabsorption at the macula densa causes increased renin secretion
C. Angiotensinogen is converted to Angiotensin I in the lungs
D. Prostaglandins increase the secretion of renin
E. Oestrogens decrease production of angiotensinogen

775. Concerning Vasopressin
A. Diabetes insipidus is characterised by polydipsia and polyuria
B. Secretion of Vasopressin is stimulated by alcohol
C. Surgical stress inhibits secretion of Vasopressin
D. Preprooxyphysia is the precursor of Vasopressin
E. Vasopressin is absent in hippopotamuses

776. Which of the following is true concerning temperature regulation
A. Vaporisation of sweat accounts for 70% of heat loss
B. Increased TSH is an important response to cold
C. Anterior hypothalamic stimulation causes shivering
D. Bacterial toxin act on the OVLT to produce fever
E. None of the above

777. With respect to thirst, which of the following is true
A. Angiotensin II acts on the supraoptic nucleus to stimulate thirst
B. Drinking and vasopressin secretion are regulated in much the same way
C. Dry mucous membranes stimulate thirst via the hypothalamus
D. Secretion of oxytocin causes thirst due to its similarity to Vasopressin
E. ACE inhibitors decrease thirst in response to hypovolaemia by decreasing Angiotensin II.

778. Which of the following is true concerning the heart
A. Increased volume work produces an increase in oxygen consumption than increased pressure work
B. Cardiac work is the product of heart rate and stroke volume
C. The heart in its rested state gains 60% of its caloric requirements from fat
D. The work of the left ventricle is twice that of the right due to higher pressures in the systemic circulation
E. Increased preload has a greater effect on oxygen consumption of the heart than increased afterload

779. Of the following, which is correct
A. The normal cardiac index is 3.2L
B. Increased heart rate with exercise in a transplanted heart is due to a heterometric regulation mechanism
C. Increased heart rate with exercise in a transplanted heart is due to a homometric regulation mechanism
D. The normal ejection fraction is 65%
E. All of the above

780. Which of the following does not cause an increase in cardiac output
A. Eating
B. Moderate increase in environmental temperature
C. Pregnancy
D. Exercise
E. Anxiety

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